Domingo F. Sarmiento
He embodied everything
that Martí would later reject, mainly regarding Europe as the guide
for the new republics, and the elimination of the native element in the
Americas. Typical man of his time, Sarmiento reflected in his work positivist
thinking at the extreme; he embraced European philosophy and deeply believed
that the Indian and the gaucho were hindrances to civilization. For Sarmiento,
the barbarie represented in the gaucho and the Indian was to be eliminated
in his country; for him only European civilization was a commendable
way of life. He became president and fostered immigration from Northern
European countries, although most newcomers hailed from Italy and Spain.
His famous work (infamous some would say) is Civilization and
Barbarie (1845) where he purports that barbarie is epitomized by the
gaucho culture that dominated his country. Very unfortunately, his ideas
are still widely regarded as the gospel in his native country.